THE NOVEL OF NATURALISM AND DECADENCE 85 1943); she remained 'consistent', but managed after the turn of the century to enliven her hard and relentless studies of working- class and peasant milieu with a peculiar humour, which served her., so she said, like a mackintosh in rain. She was the only woman among the primitive naturalists - as a member of M. G. Conrad's circle she wrote for Die Geselhchaft - who earned a niche in literary annals by the permanent merit of her work. She was rather a writer for the writing fraternity than for the mass of the reading public; the short stories with which she began (Feierabend und andere Munchmr Geschichten, 1893; Lebensstucke, 1893) and her two plays (Der standhafte Zinnsoldat^ 1896; DerBaa, 1897) were too true to the naturalistic type to appeal to light-minded readers. Her Gedichte in Prosa (1893), too, are interesting mainly as experiments in form; they belong to the imitations of Whitman which followed the lyric revolt of Holz and Schlaf. Her protective humour did, however, lend some popular appeal to her novel Winkelquartett (1908), and there is the regional attraction of Heimatkunst in the short stories of her Pimpernellche (1901) and Aus unsers Herrgotts Tiergarten (1906), which render the moods of her native Palatinate; she has strictly regional reality, too, in her novel Die Nann (1906), which unfolds the life of peasants in the Brenner Pass district.